Cannabis and Ecstasy/ MDMA: Empirical Measures of Creativity in Recreational Users (Report) Folklore and anecdotal evidence have long suggested that psychedelic drugs such as cannabis and LSD may enhance creativity, and there has been some experimental support for this (Krippner 1977), or at least support for such drugs increasing the perception that one is being creative (Krippner 1985, 1968). There have been studies claiming that there is a link between musical and artistic talent and psychedelic drug use, with many influential musicians and artists also using cannabis, LSD, heroin and drinking alcohol (Jones 2007; Tolson & Cuyjet 2007; Singer & Mirhej 2006; ten Berge 1999; Lapp, Collins & Izzo 1994; Masters & Houston 1968). Creativity has been cited as a reason for ongoing drug use in women (Prather & Fidell 1978) and adolescents have stated that drug use increases their creativity (Novacek et al. 2005). Although the studies referred to above do associate drug use with increased creativity, Weckowicz and colleagues (1975) found that after giving high or low doses of marijuana, behavioral creativity scores (Consequences test, described below) were highest for the low marijuana dosage group and lowest for the high dosage group. The low dose group did not differ significantly from the placebo controls. In a recent article, Sessa (2008) argued that the possible connection between psychedelic drug use and creativity needs to be revisited. Following the finding by Topp and colleagues (1999) that recreational Ecstasy users rated creativity as a positive outcome of Ecstasy use, the aim of the present study is to assess creativity in Ecstasy/MDMA users, cannabis users and nondrug users, with creativity assessed behaviorally with the Consequences test, and also by two self-assessment measures.